Aerobic capacity

Aerobic capacity is the greatest amount of oxygen consumed at maximal exercise intensity using large muscle groups (arms and/or legs) in sustained rhythmical activities such as running and cycling



The term ‘anabolic’ refers to the building of tissue, such as muscle.


Anaerobic threshold

The anaerobic threshold is the point during exercise of an increasing intensity at which anaerobic processes become more dominant in the supply of energy, causing a sustained increase in lactate and metabolic acidosis.


ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is a high-energy molecule found in the cells of the body. Its role is to store and supply the cell with the energy needed for function. Energy is released when ATP is broken down into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate.


Creatine ethyl ester

Creatine ethyl ester combines creatine with an ester moleculeEsters are organic compounds that help to transport creatine across the lipid membranes of the gut into the bloodstream for delivery to the muscles.


Creatine gluconate

Creatine gluconate is essentially a creatine molecule bound to a glucose molecule. This enables the more rapid uptake of the creatine by the muscles.


Creatine monohydrate

Creatine monohydrate is the form of creatine which is most similar or identical to the creatine produced by the body. It consists of creatine with one molecule of water attached to it.


Creatine nitrate

Creatine nitrate comprises creatine bound to a nitrate group, which increases its water solubility making it more palatable when consumed.



The term ‘ergogenic’ means to enhance physical performance.


Glycogen synthesis

Glycogen synthesis is the process of storing glucose in the body in the form of glycogen, which provides a readily available source of energy when blood glucose levels decrease.


IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1)

IGF1, also called somatomedin C, is a hormone similar to insulin which plays an important role in childhood growth, and has an anabolic effect in adults.



Mitochondria are tiny organs known as the ‘powerhouses of the cell’ as they provide 90% of the energy needed to sustain life. They convert the sugars, fats and proteins that we eat, into forms of chemical energy that the body can use.


Neurological conditions

The term ‘neurological conditions’ refers to diseases that affect the brain and nervous system.



Phosphocreatine or creatine phosphate (PCr) is a high-energy molecule comprising a phosphate group and a high energy bond bound to a creatine molecule. Unlike ATP, energy released by the breakdown of PCr is not used directly to fuel cellular work; rather, it is used to form ATP, which is then broken down to provide the required energy.