1. Pharmacol Biochem Behav . 2003 Jul;75(4):823-30.


Adaptogenic Effect of Bacopa Monniera (Brahmi)

Deepak Rai  1 Gitika BhatiaGautam PalitRaghwendra PalSatyawan SinghHemant K Singh



As stress is linked to many diseases, research on an effective antistress agent (adaptogen) from plants has gained importance. We report the investigations on the adaptogenic property of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera against acute (AS) and chronic stress (CS) models in rats. Panax root powder (Panax quinquefolium) was taken as a standard. Male SD rats, weighing 180-200 g, exposed to immobilization stress for 150 min once only for AS and for seven consecutive days in CS, were fed with B. monniera or Panax root powder daily for 3 days in AS and for 7 days in CS, 45 min prior to each exposure of stress. Rats were sacrificed immediately after stress, the blood was collected, and the plasma was separated out for biochemical estimation. Adrenals, spleen, and thymus were dissected for organ weight and stomach for ulcer score. AS exposure significantly increased the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) but significantly decreased the spleen weight. Pretreatment with B. monniera at 40 mg/kg po significantly reduced the AS-induced increase in the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, plasma glucose, AST, and CK. A dose of 80 mg/kg po significantly reversed the AS-induced changes in adrenal gland weight, spleen weight, plasma glucose, ALT, and AST. Panax root powder, 100 mg/kg po, significantly reversed the AS-induced changes in spleen weight, plasma ALT, AST, and CK. CS exposure resulted in a significant increase in the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, plasma AST, and CK with a significant decrease in the thymus and spleen weight, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol. Pretreatment with low dose of B. monniera extract at 40 mg/kg significantly reversed changes in ulcer index and plasma AST only, whereas the pretreatment with higher dose significantly reversed CS-induced changes in ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, CK, and AST. Panax root powder significantly reversed CS-induced increase in ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, CK, and AST. On the basis of our result, it is concluded that the standardized extract of B. monniera possesses a potent adaptogenic activity.


  1. Phytother Res . 2014 Apr;28(4):551-9.


An Acute, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study of 320 Mg and 640 Mg Doses of Bacopa Monnieri (CDRI 08) on Multitasking Stress Reactivity and Mood

Sarah Benson  1 Luke A DowneyCon StoughMark WetherellAndrea ZangaraAndrew Scholey


Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® – CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853).